Bunions Causes Warning Signs And Remedies

posted on 18 Jun 2015 15:27 by waryjoker144
Overview
Bunions A foot bunion is a common cause of foot pain caused by deformity of one of the toe bones. They most commonly affect the big toe, known as hallux abducto valgus, but can also affect the little toe, known as a bunionette. The classic presentation is a large bump on the outer side of the big toe that is red, swollen and painful caused by the toe deviating across towards the second toe. Left untreated, the condition usually gets gradually worse, so it is important to get treatment early on else you may end up needing bunion surgery.

Causes
People born with abnormal bones (congenital) in their feet. Inherited foot type. Foot injuries. Inflammatory or degenerative arthritis causing the protective cartilage that covers your big toe joint to deteriorate. Wearing high heels forces your toes into the front of your shoes, often crowding your toes. Wearing shoes that are too tight, too narrow or too pointed are more susceptible to bunions. Pain from arthritis may change the way you walk, making you more susceptible to bunions. Occupation that puts extra stress on your feet or job that requires you to wear ill-fitting shoes. The tendency to develop bunions may be present because of an inherited structural foot defect.

Symptoms
With the positional change of the hallux, pain is a common occurrence. As the foot goes through the gait cycle the hallux plays an integral role as the body's weight transmits through during propulsion. With this in mind, it easy to see how the change in the hallux joints (metatarsal phalangeal joint and the proximal interphalangeal) would cause joint narrowing and early degeneration of the articular cartilage. In addition, two small bones (ossicles) found underneath just behind the joint will start placing extra pressure on the metatarsal. Along with bony changes, there are many soft tissue changes as the hallux and metatarsal reposition, which causes added strain to other bony structures and can accelerate the problem.

Diagnosis
Although bunions are usually obvious from the pain and unusual shape of the toe, further investigation is often advisable. Your doctor will usually send you for X-rays to determine the extent of the deformity. Blood tests may be advised to see if some type of arthritis could be causing the pain. Based on this evaluation, your doctor can determine whether you need orthopaedic shoes, medication, surgery or other treatment.

Non Surgical Treatment
Patients should immediately cease using improperly fitted shoes. Footwear selection should have a wide and roomy toebox to accommodate the full width of the foot. If the problem is the over-pronation, the patient should be fitted with orthotics and can expect a slow recovery from pain over a period of months. Orthotics will not cause the physical deformity to regress, but will simply arrest any further progression and likely stop the pain. It is important to note however, that when bunions are severe and require surgery, the bunion can be corrected, but will develop again unless the root cause of over-pronation is corrected. If over-pronation is the root cause, orthotics will still be necessary. Bunion Pain

Surgical Treatment
In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published guidance about a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat bunions. The aim of the procedure is to repair the tilting of the big toe. The technique can be carried out under a local anaesthetic or a general anaesthetic, using X-rays or an endoscope for guidance. The type of endoscope used will be a long, thin, rigid tube with a light source and video camera at one end. One or more incisions will be made near the big toe so that bone-cutting instruments can be inserted. These will be used to remove the bunion and to divide one or more bones located at the front of the foot. Wires, screws or plates will be used to keep the divided bones in place. After the procedure, you may need to wear a plaster cast or dressing to keep your foot in the correct position until the bones have healed. You may be given a special surgical shoe that enables you to walk on your heel. As the procedure is relatively new, there's little in the way of reliable evidence regarding its safety or effectiveness.

Prevention
The best protection against developing bunions is to protect and care for your feet every day. Avoid tight and narrow-fitting shoes. Limit your use of high heels. Wear comfortable shoes with adequate space between your longest toe and the end of the shoe. Getting treatment for very flat or very high-arched feet (if you are experiencing symptoms) will give your feet the proper support and help maintain stability and balance.
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